Archive for February, 2011

Obesity

Posted: February 7, 2011 in Psychology

Prevention Strategies

Key words:

– Healthy lifestyle

– Physical activity

”Eat well plate” (2007) – education strategy in the UK

Australia – massive campaign aimed for primary school children. Encouraging children to eat better food, move, turn off screens, etc.

Treatment

Obesity :

– Social

– Cultural

– Cognitive

– Physical

All these are needed, psychosocial methods are the most common ones.

Blair-West meant that treatment should be based on research eg.  stages of changes (Prochascha) knowing where people are in process of decision and changing is important for efficient treatment.

Blair-west -treatment program (Australia)

-> Realistic goal setting ( long-term weight loss etc.)

-> Low sacrifice diet ( decide what can be sacrificed and what not, and learn to identify what the most fattening is.

-> Information about dangers and benefits

-> Physical activity

4 different treatments:

CBT

– Dieting

– Drug treatment

-Surgery

CBT:

Aim: change cognitions and eating behaviour.

Thinking (Cognition) -> Behaviours

Judith Beck – Beck institute – new CBT based program:

1- Challenge eating behaviours: destructive eating behaviour: recognize and change

2- Challenge thinking: dysfunctional cognition, body image and self-confidence

3- Long-term maintenance: of weight after loss

– Pilot study: 10 obese women -> positive results after 1 year.

Stahre (2007) – mean bill 36, cognitive based 1/2,  training only 1/2

->cognitive (experimental) group 5.9kg loss average after 18 month

->control: 1kg loss

Conclusion: CBT is a cost effective (more for less)

Dieting:

Yes, dieting gives results but Meta – analysis is from 92 studies of dieting shows that weight gain after treatment was the norm.

This is also supported with rats ( Brown et al) showing that repeated weight loss was followed by weight regain.

Reason: increased body fat + decreased metabolism

Drug treatment:

Two types – none very well researched

One aimed at decreasing appetite suppressant drug. The other is aimed at reducing fat absorbtion ( lipase inhibitors -> affects gastro intestinal system – body reacts negatively to fatty foods.)

Surgery treatment:

Gastric bypass (gastric banding) – cutting of parts of the stomach so it can no longer be as full or used to absorb food -> feel full sooner

Maggard et al. (2005) a meta physical on 147 studies and found that surgery lead to 20-30kg weight loss – same over time and lead to a general improvement in health.

 

 

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common pitfalls (IOC)

Posted: February 7, 2011 in English A1

If you fail to:

– Establishing context (speaker)

– Discuss the style, instead put time (too much) on contents

–  Interpretation order

– Title

– Dates

-Central Tension

– Running comm.

– Identify key feautures/literary devices

– Form  – content

– Structure

 

Physiological aspects:

Genetic predispositon:

  • Correlational research: two obese parents – result in 80% in becoming obese. Garn et al, chances of slim parents having an overweight child is about 7% Correlation – no causes.
  • Twin studies – Stunkard et al – twins reared apart. Genetics play a great role – especially in those who are slim. Indicate genetic factors – but no cause and effect either. Metabolism? Amount of fat cells? Or rather about learned lifestyles.
  • Problem with genetic explanation : it can account for obesity but not for the epidemic like increase in prevalence as this is happening in too short time.
  • Evolutionary theory – we are genetically programmed to eat to survive – if we can. Works out well under ”normal conditions” when there isn’t much to eat – that’s not the case nowadays though (and less physical activity)

Socio-cultural factors:

Lack of physical activity eg. the sedentary lifestyle modern people lead.

Correlational research: Prentice and Jebb (1995) – physical activity difference in UK  – positive relationship between obesity, car ownership and television veiwing. No cause and effect. Lakdawalla went far as estimating that 60% of the total growth in weight was due to decreased activity compared to 40% in calorie intake.

  • There are various factors coming into play (not just laziness and indulgence) energy dense food, labouring saving devices, motorized transports, sedentary work..
  • Eating behaviour. Calorie intake grew by 25% in the US between 1973 and 1999, can be seen in many other countries, but not in all (like Australia – no changes in calories but still increase in obesity)
  • Theory . the fat proportion theory. Obese may not eat more than non-obese but eat proportionally more fat content (Blunder et al) – high fat eaters were 19 times as likely to be obese than those who are not.
  • Health gap between people in different socioeconomic groups – and this is widening ( Peterson, 2006)
  • Forslund (2005) on snacking – found (cross-sectional study, self reports) compared energy intake in obese group vs. control group. Found that the obese group ate more often, and got most energy out from snacking (also later at night) . Problem with study: the self-report part (under-reporting, and the participants (they were part of an intervention program).

Biographical references: Yeats was in love with Maud Gonne, obsessed with her but could not marry her as she was married, but they were friends. Mrs Kathleen Pitcher is Maud’s sister. This could be the people in the poem. Maud the mild woman and the friend her sister.

Title? Adam: man

Man’s curse, biblical reference/illusion, tempted by snake, ate the apple and sent to earth as punishment. Adam was cursed to work hard, labour was his curse. All men were cursed to do all labour and women were cursed to give labour, pain is her curse. the labour is holy and important as only the title has a biblical illusion and the rest of the poem does not. Biblical illusions are very common in his time.

Significance? life is hard like when adam was to earth from the garden of eden

Speakers?

-we: one man, on mild woman, another woman

1st stanza is yeats, 2nd stanza is Someone else, 3rd stanza yeats

Addressed? the poem is dedicated to the women he loves, only for your ears

1st Stanza: Talks about how poems are hard to right and that poetry is hard labour, also refers to hard practical work that is appreciated more than poetry. It has an understated grace. Even though poems seem to be natural and easy they are much more complicated than you think. Claim for poetry.

2nd Stanza: Claim for being beautiful. It is not easy to be beautiful and keep yourself physically beautiful. This is all said by the friend. Then  Yeats claims that even love needs hard labour. That to find the beauty of love, is hard to find and it is not easy like you can find it in books.

3rd Stanza: Moon is  metaphor and is the effects of time. Effects of time on human love. This poem was only for her ears, his lover. Strive is another word for labour that you push yourself for something, which is another implication of labour. Sad in the end not so happy.

Structure:

Rhymes with heroic couplets, ex: yet/set. Except the last couplets and the last stanza is quite different. Which also mean that there is hard labour behind the structure, and it is not just structured randomly.

English Homework!

Posted: February 2, 2011 in English A1

1. Sum up Chapter 6 in your own words and describe the key events in this chapter briefly.

– It’s Spring, Claudia says this season is like being whipped with a switch instead of a strap.

– Claudia is in an empty place alone then goes home,  finds her mother singing and acting weird, doing the same thing twice. Frieda is crying because Henry touched Frieda’s breasts. Frieda told her parents what had happened, but Henry was gone. Mr. and Mrs. MacTeer attacked him, when he came back.

– A neighbour gave Mr. MacTeer a gun. He shot at Henry and he ran away. Rosemary came and told Frieda that her father would go to jail, and Frieda hit her. Then another neighbor, Miss Dunion, came in and suggested that they take Frieda to the doctor because she might be ”ruined”.

– Frieda and Claudia don’t know what “ruined” means and worry that Frieda will become fat like the Maginot Line. They say that China and Poland are “ruined” as well but think that they are not fat because they drink whiskey.

– Frieda and Claudia decide to ask Pecola to get whisky from her father in order to keep Frieda from getting fat. They go to Pecola’s house, but no one is home. The Maginot Line is upstairs on the porch drinking root beer,  she invites the girls upstairs for a soda, but Frieda tells her that they are not allowed to visit her because she is “ruined.” The Maginot Line throws the root-beer bottle at the girls in anger, but then she laughs.

– Frieda and Claudia walk to the lakefront houses, they find Pecola at the back of one of the prettiest houses. She is surprised to see them, and they ask her why she is not afraid of the Maginot Line. Pecola is confused and talks about how nice Miss  Maginot Line and her friends are. The inside of the house is beautiful, and a small white girl comes in and asks for “Polly.” Claudia is furious that the child calls Mrs. Breedlove by this name because even Pecola calls her mother “Mrs. Breedlove.” From upstairs, the little girl calls for Polly, and Pecola accidentally pulls a freshly baked berry cobbler off the counter. The cobbler splatters on the floor and burns her, and her mother comes in and beats her. Furious, Mrs. Breedlove sends the girls away and comforts the little white girl, who has begun to cry.

2. Discuss and analyse the incident with Henry.

Frieda is crying because Henry touched her breasts. Frieda told her parents what had happened, but Henry was gone. Mr. and Mrs. MacTeer attacked him, when he came back. A neighbour gave Mr. MacTeer a gun. He shot at Henry and he ran away. Rosemary came and told Frieda that her father would go to jail, and Frieda hit her. Then another neighbor, Miss Dunion, came in and suggested that they take Frieda to the doctor because she might be ”ruined”. Frieda and Claudia don’t know what “ruined” means and worry that Frieda will become fat like the Maginot Line. They say that China and Poland are “ruined” as well but think that they are not fat because they drink whiskey.

3. Sum up chapter 7 in your own words and describe the key events in this chapter briefly.

–  Mrs. Breedlove’s story, grows up in Alabama as Pauline Williams, and when she is two years old, she impales her foot on a nail, afterward, she walks with a slight limp, and she believes that this accident made her destiny. During her childhood, she is isolated from other family members, and therefore cultivates her own pleasures. She enjoys arranging things, creating order and being perfect. Her family moves to Kentucky, Pauline is put in charge of caring for the house and her two younger siblings, Chicken and Pie. She enjoys this life, but once she turns fifteen, she becomes restless and she begins to dream of a stranger; a man, or a god who will take her away with him.

– stranger arrives, pauline is standing in the garden and hears a young man whistling. Suddenly she feels him tickling her bad foot and turns to meet the gaze of Cholly Breedlove. They fall in love, and he is nice to here. They decide to marry and move up north to Lorain, Ohio, where there are more jobs. Then life becomes more difficult. Pauline feels lonely and isolated, and she is surprised by how unfriendly the other women are. They are amused by her country ways. She begins to long for clothes that will make the women look at her differently, and she and Cholly begin to argue about money. Cholly’s drinking becomes a problem.

– Pauline gets her first job as a housekeeper in a white woman’s house. The white woman is well-off but petty and foolish. Her family has dirty habits. One day, Cholly shows up at the woman’s house drunk and demands money, and Pauline leaves her job. The woman will not give her the job back or the rest of her pay unless Pauline leaves Cholly. Pauline refuses and is left without money for cooking gas.

–  Pauline realizes she is pregnant. Cholly is happy and their marriage improves, but Pauline is still lonely in their apartment. She takes refuge in the movies and develops destructive ideas about physical beauty and romantic love. She tries to make herself look like a movie star, but then while chewing candy at a movie, she loses one of her front teeth. From then on, she feels ugly, and she and Cholly begin to fight again. Her first baby fails to fill the hole in her life. She talks to her second baby in the womb, vowing to love her no matter what. When she gives birth in the hospital, a doctor tells a group of students that black women do not feel pain while giving birth; they are “just like horses.” Despite this insult, Pauline is pleased with her new baby, Pecola, but knows the baby is ugly.

– Pauline then takes on her identity as martyr. She joins the church and becomes the family breadwinner, securing a job with the Fishers, a wealthy family who appreciate her good work. She loves her work because it allows her to make things beautiful and orderly. She begins to neglect her own house and family. At times, she remembers the good times with Cholly, when their lovemaking turned everything into rainbows. Now their lovemaking occurs while he is drunk and she is half-asleep.

4. Look further into how this chapter is narrated.

4.morrison shifts perspectives so the readers to use different ways of judging characters. The perspective of Pecola’s mother in the previous chapter was that she behaved terribly towards her daughter but in this chapter we get to know why she did that. Here our perception changes and we get to know that things got like this because of her complicated past.
Pauline narrated this chapter herself so and it gets more personal.
Pauline creates narratives to explain her life.
Morrison uses color to emphasize the beauty of Pauline and Cholly’s relationship. Pauline describes the green flash of the june bugs that she misses from her hometown. When she falls in love with Cholly, this green imagery merges with a memory of having her hips stained purple while picking berries and the yellow of her mother’s lemonade. When she remembers her and Cholly’s lovemaking, these colors reappear and form a rainbow. This repetition gives a lyricism to Pauline’s memories.

5. Give your own account about how Cholly Breedloves story after reading chapter 8.

– Cholly’s point of view in this chapter. Understanding how it was possible for Cholly to commit incest does not change our knowledge that he has caused tremendous suffering to his daughter but does change the how we look at him. Cholly’s violence is not frightening because it is senseless; it is frightening because it makes all too much sense, given the kind of life he has lived. Knowing Cholly’s story may not change the horror of what he does, but it does make his action more bearable to us.

– We sympathize with Cholly not only because he has suffered abandonment, sexual humiliation, and racism, but because there was once real beauty and joy in his life. We are given a long description about the breaking and eating of the watermelon, as if it were “[t]he nasty-sweet guts of the earth.” Cholly’s childlike joy in sharing the heart of the watermelon with Blue Jack is vividly rendered.

6. Discuss the effect Cholly’s account of the rape has for the story – for the reader’s perception and interpretation of the story?

7. Sum up chapter 9 in your own words and describe the key events in this chapter briefly.

-Story Soaphead Church “Reader, Adviser, and Interpreter of Dreams” in Lorain’s black community. A light-skinned West Indian, raised in a family proud of its mixed blood. His family has always been academically and politically ambitious, and always corrupt. Family members have always tried to marry other light-skinned people, and, if unable to do so, they have married one another. Soaphead Church’s father was a sadistic schoolmaster and his half-Chinese mother died soon after he was born. Born Elihue Micah Whitcomb, Soaphead Church soon learned the art of self-deception and developed a fascination and revulsion for dirt and decay.

Soaphead married a woman named Velma, but she left him two months afterward. Next, he pursued the ministry but soon discovered that the profession was not right for him. He studied psychiatry and other social sciences, took different jobs, and finally came to Lorain. He rents a back room from an elderly lady named Bertha Reese, and his only hardship is her old dog, Bob, which disgusts him with its runny eyes. Soaphead buys poison to kill the dog but is too repulsed to go near it.

At this point, Pecola comes to ask him to give her blue eyes. He is touched by this request—his own attraction to whiteness makes it easily comprehensible. He knows he cannot help her, but he tells her to give meat—which he has secretly poisoned—to the dog. He tells her that if the dog reacts, her wish will be granted. The dog convulses and dies, and Pecola runs away.

Soaphead then writes a rambling and incoherent letter to God in which we learn more about his understanding of his life. He still feels rejected by Velma, who left him “the way people leave a hotel room.” He describes his love for the newly budding breasts of young girls (we have already been told that he is a pedophile). He remembers two girls, Doreen and Sugar Babe, who let him touch them in exchange for money and sweets. He tells God that he did not touch Pecola and brags that he has rivaled God by granting her wish—she will not literally have blue eyes, but she will believe she does. Soaphead closes his letter and thinks lovingly about all the miscellaneous objects he has collected. He is asleep when his landlord discovers her dead dog.

8. Soaphead is made into a parody not only to make obvious to us that he is a bad person. Through his character, Morrison also wishes to critique yet another deceptive method of dealing with racial self-hatred. While education may seem to be an escape, the Western education that Soaphead’s family has received reinforces and even exaggerates their self-denial and perversity. While religion may be an escape, it also promotes self-denial and encourages a dangerous, delusional self-righteousness. True freedom and happiness, Morrison suggests, come from a feeling of connectedness with one’s own body, not a denial of it.

 

 

 

Question 6

a)  Technocentrics are people who are more likely to agree with the statement as they believe that the world will only be protected by the more developed countries which have better technology. Because they can afford techonolgy,which they think is what they need to fix the environmment to become better.

b) Technocentrics are the ones who think more developed countries are able to fox the environemnt all because if the country has money, jobs and education which is all obtained through money, to fix the environment. On the other hand ecocentrics think that the world is to complex for humans to change it. So its not more or less developed countires that can fix it , its the world itself. We can also say that you can fix the environent with things that dont need money, like less developed countries can do things without technology and  they don’t need so much machinery  because they don’t have money to afford it,they can make ways to use recylcling and composting and farming  in better ways . In this way they are helping the environment in a good way and they did not need money.

c) Enviromental Issue: Global Warming

Local groups : they drive cars, dont recycle. This can be managed by taking public transport… recylcling and more advertising about how important it is to recycle and help the environment

National groups: well the country is letting companies burn fossil fuels, they should start letting companies try new ways or ban these fossil fuels and force them to pay for better ways of making energy to the country like solar power and wind power

International groups; they can help by making laws  and policies for all the countries, like for eg.  To agree on reducing the emissions of bad gases, so global warming stops, or decreases at least.