• Describe and evaluate methods for measuring changes in abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem along an environmental gradient.
Ecological gradients are often found where two ecosystems meet. Biotic and abiotic factors change and form gradients in which then can be recorded. All parts of the gradient needs to be sampled, so a transect is used. The simplest one is when a line of tape is layed down across the area wanted to be measured then to take samples of all the organisms touching the tape. Many transects should be taken to obtain quantitative data. A belt transect is used for bigger samples.
  • Describe and evaluate methods for measuring changes in abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem due to a specific human activity.
Chernobyl 1986, Russia:
Nuclear reactor blew up
  • design drawback
  • human errors due to poor supervision
The cause:
This caused an increase in thermal power which lead to more explosions. This contaminated soil, plants and animals.
Respond:
  • Fire fighters tried to turn it off, it took 5000 tonnes of sand, lead and clay.
  • The UN gave £75 million to make it safe and it was fixed by an international team ten years later.
  • People had to evacuate 30km away
  • The town was cleared of everything
  • 15cm of soil depth was removed
  • land washed away and dams were built
  • wall built around it
  • food was contaminated
  • Describe and evaluate the use of environmental impact assessment (EIA).
EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment
Process for identifying the likely consequence for the biophysical environment and for man’s health and welfare of implementing particular activities and for conveying information at a stage where it can materially affect the decision, to those for sanctioning the proposals. (long definition)
Purpose of the EIA:
Helps the decision making process by providing information about the consequences of the environment. Promotes sustainable development by identifying environmentally sound practice and migration measures for development.
Used for: 
Planning process that governments set out in law when large developments are considered. They provide a documented way of examining environmental impacts that can be used as evidence in the decision making process of any new development.
What developments used in the EIA:
  • Major new road networks
  • Airport/port developments
  • Building power stations
  • Building dams and reservoirs
  • Quarrying
  • Large scale housing projects.
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