Posts Tagged ‘abiotic’

  • Describe and evaluate methods for measuring changes in abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem along an environmental gradient.
Ecological gradients are often found where two ecosystems meet. Biotic and abiotic factors change and form gradients in which then can be recorded. All parts of the gradient needs to be sampled, so a transect is used. The simplest one is when a line of tape is layed down across the area wanted to be measured then to take samples of all the organisms touching the tape. Many transects should be taken to obtain quantitative data. A belt transect is used for bigger samples.
  • Describe and evaluate methods for measuring changes in abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem due to a specific human activity.
Chernobyl 1986, Russia:
Nuclear reactor blew up
  • design drawback
  • human errors due to poor supervision
The cause:
This caused an increase in thermal power which lead to more explosions. This contaminated soil, plants and animals.
Respond:
  • Fire fighters tried to turn it off, it took 5000 tonnes of sand, lead and clay.
  • The UN gave £75 million to make it safe and it was fixed by an international team ten years later.
  • People had to evacuate 30km away
  • The town was cleared of everything
  • 15cm of soil depth was removed
  • land washed away and dams were built
  • wall built around it
  • food was contaminated
  • Describe and evaluate the use of environmental impact assessment (EIA).
EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment
Process for identifying the likely consequence for the biophysical environment and for man’s health and welfare of implementing particular activities and for conveying information at a stage where it can materially affect the decision, to those for sanctioning the proposals. (long definition)
Purpose of the EIA:
Helps the decision making process by providing information about the consequences of the environment. Promotes sustainable development by identifying environmentally sound practice and migration measures for development.
Used for: 
Planning process that governments set out in law when large developments are considered. They provide a documented way of examining environmental impacts that can be used as evidence in the decision making process of any new development.
What developments used in the EIA:
  • Major new road networks
  • Airport/port developments
  • Building power stations
  • Building dams and reservoirs
  • Quarrying
  • Large scale housing projects.
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  • List the significant abiotic (physical) factors of an ecosystem.

Ecosystems can be divided into 3 types:

  • Marine: the sea, salt marshes mangroves are all characterized by the salt content.
  • Freshwater: rivers, lakes and wetlands.
  • Terrestrial: land-based.

Each ecosystem has its on abiotic factors:

Marine:

  • salinity
  • pH
  • temperature
  • dissolved oxygen
  • wave action

Freshwater:

  • turbidity
  • flow velocity
  • pH
  • temperature
  • dissolved oxygen

Terrestrial:

  • temperature
  • light intensity
  • particle size
  • slope/aspect
  • soil moisture
  • drainage
  • mineral content
  • Describe  and evaluate methods  for measuring at least three abiotic (physical) factors within an ecosystem.

Abiotic factors that can be measured within an ecosystem include the following:

Marine:

  • salinity: this can be measured  using electrical conductivity ( with a datalogger) or by the density of the water (water with high salt content is more denser than low-salt water).
  • pH: this can be measured using a pH meter, or datalogging pH probe. Indicator solution may also be used.
  • temperature: ordinary thermometers are too fragile to use for fieldwork, and are hard to read. An electric thermometer allows temperature to be measured  in depth.
  • dissolved oxygen: a meter with oxygen-sensitive electrodes connected that measures dissolved oxygen. One should be careful as doing things wrong may contaminate the air.
  • wave action: this is measured by using a dynomometer which measures the force in waves.

Freshwater:

  • turbidity: can be measured using a Secchi disc, nephlometer or turbidimeter.
  • flow velocity: can be measured by timing how long it takes a floating object to travel a certain distance or by using a flow-meter.
  • temperature: ordinary thermometers are too fragile to use for fieldwork, and are hard to read. An electric thermometer allows temperature to be measured  in depth.
  • dissolved oxygen: a meter with oxygen-sensitive electrodes connected that measures dissolved oxygen. One should be careful as doing things wrong may contaminate the air.

Terrestrial:

  • temperature: ordinary thermometers are too fragile to use for fieldwork, and are hard to read. An electric thermometer allows temperature to be measured  in depth.
  • light intensity: is measured using a light-meter.
  • wind speed: a Beufort-scale is used to measure wind speed and precise measurements can be made with a digital anemometer.
  • particle size: this determines the drainage and water-holding capacity and is measured by using a series of sieves.
  • slope: this is measured using a clinometer and using a compass.
  • soil moisture: by weighing the samples then heating them it shows the amount of water that has evaporated and the moisture levels.
  • mineral content: the loss on the ignition test can determine mineral content. The samples are heated for several hours to let volatile substances to escape.
Abiotic data can be collected using instruments that avoid issues of objectivity as they directly measure quantitative data. Instruments allow us to record data that would otherwise be beyond the limit of our perception.
  • Distinguish between biotic and abiotic (physical) components of an ecosystem.

*Biotic: refers to the living components of an ecosystem. (the community)

*Abiotic: refers to the non-living factors of an ecosystem. (the environment)

Ecosystems are made up of living and non-living components. The living part of the environment consists of the organic part of the ecosystem; animals, plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. These are called biotic components. The non-living part of the environment is made up of physical components such as; air, light, water, temperature, soil, minerals and climatic atmosphere. These are called abiotic components. These two components work together to sustain the environment.

  • Define the term trophic level.

Trophic level refers to the feeding level within a food chain. It is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain, or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains.

  • Trophic level 1 – producer
  • Trophic level 2 – herbivore (primary consumers)
  • Trophic level 3 – carnivore (secondary consumers)
  • Trophic level 4 – carnivore (tertiary consumer)
    • Identify and explain trophic levels in food chains and food webs selected from the local environment.

    *Producer: The organism in the ecosystem that converts abiotic components into living matter, they help the ecosystem by producing new biological matter.

    *Consumer: These organisms cannot produce their own food, so they eat other organisms to get the energy and matter they need.

    * Decomposer: Feed on dead biomass which is created by the ecosystem.

    *Herbivore: Only feed on producers.

    *Carnivore: Feed on all organisms including producers and consumers.

    *Top carnivore: This organism can not be eaten by any other organism.

    Sun: Provides the abiotic matter to the grass

    Grass: Producer and autotroph, provide food for the deer.

    Deer: The primary consumer and herbivore of the grass.

    Wolf: The secondary consumer/Top consumer and carnivore, feeds on the deer and cannot be eaten by any other organism.

    Ecosystems contain many interconnected food chains that form food webs. Food chains always begin with the producers (usually photosynthetic organisms), followed by primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (omnivores or carnivores) and then higher consumers (tertiary, top). Decomposers feed at every level of the food chain.

    Diagrams of food webs can be used to estimate the knock-on effects of changes to the ecosystem.

    Biomass and energy decrease at each trophic level so there is a limit in how much trophic levels can be supported in a ecosystem. Energy is lost as heat at each stage of the food chain, on only energy stored in biomass is passed on to the next trophic level. After 4 or 5 trophic levels there is not enough energy to support another stage.

    Local example: (Lake in Sweden)

    Producer: Freshwater shrimp

    Primary consumer: Bleak

    Secondary consumer: Perch

    Secondary consumer: Northen Pike

    Top consumer: Osprey

    • Explain the principles of pyramids of numbers, pyramids of biomass, and pyramids of productivity, and construct such pyramids from given data.

    Pyramids are graphical models showing the quantitative differences between the trophic levels of an ecosystem. There are three types:

    • Pyramids of numbers: This records the number of individuals in each trophic level.

    • Pyramid of biomass: This represents the biological mass of the standing stock at each trophic level at a particular point in time. Biomass should also be measured in units of energy, such as J m-2. They can show greater quantities at higher trophic levels because they represent the biomass present at a given time. Both pyramids of numbers and biomass represent storages.

    • Pyramid of productivity: This shows the flow of energy through each trophic level. Measured in units of flow gm-2 yr-1 or Jm-2 yr.

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, there is a tendency for numbers and quantities of biomass and energy to decrease along food chains; therefore pyramids become narrower as one ascends.

    • Discuss how the pyramid structure affects the functioning of an ecosystem.

    This Youtube clip explains the interactions in food chains and the vulnerability of the top carnivores.

    • Define the term species, population, habitat, niche, community and ecosystem with reference to local examples.

    *Species: A group of of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring. If two species breed together they create a hybrid, this cannot produce viable gametes and is sterile.

    *Population: A group of the same species living in the same area at the same time, and can interbreed.

    *Habitat: The environment in which a species normally lives.

    *Niche: Where and how a species lives. A species share of a habitat and the resources in it.

    *Community: A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat.

    *Ecosystem: A community of inter-independent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit.

    • Describe and explain population interactions using examples of named species.

    Ecosystems contain many interactions between the populations, the interactions are varied and can be divided into; competition, predation, mutualism and parasitism.

    *Competition: A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific.

    *Parasitism: A relationship between two species in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another (the host), gaining all or much (in the case of the partial parasite) of its food from it.

    *Mutualism: A relationship between individuals of two or more species in which all benefit and non suffer.

    *Predation: This is when on animal or plant hunts and eats another animal.


    Here are 3 Youtube links about Interspecific interactions.