Posts Tagged ‘consumers’

  • Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem.
Producer: can make their own food, as they use sunlight to make food and are called  the basis of every ecosystem which helps the rest of the species through input of energy and new biomass. This all happens through photosynthesis which is the process when the producer uses the sun for energy.
Consumer: feed on other organisms, they do not contain photosynthesis pigments so they cannot make their own food. They have to get energy, minerals and nutrients by eating other organisms. This makes the heterotrophs. Herbivores feed on autotrophs, carnivores on other heterotrophs and omnivores on both.
Decomposer: get their food from the breakdown of a dead organism matter. They break down tissue and release nutrients for absorption by other producers. Decomposers also improve the nutrient capacity in the soil by breaking down the organic material.
  • Describe photosynthesis and respiration in terms of inputs, outputs and energy transformations.
Photosynthesis: needs carbon dioxide, water, chlorofyll and certain visible wave lengths of light to produce organic matter and oxygen.
  • inputs: sunlight as energy resource, carbon dioxide and water
  • processes: chlorofyll traps sunlight; energy is used to split water molecules; hydrogen from water is combined with carbon dioxide to produce glucose.
  • outputs: glucose used as an energy source for the plant and as a building block for other organic molecules; oxygen is released to the atmosphere through stomata.
  • transformations: light energy is transformed to store chemical energy.
Respiration: needs organic matter and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
  • inputs: glucose and oxygen
  • processes: oxidation processes inside cells
  • outputs: release of energy for work and heat
  • transformations: stored chemical energy to kinetic energy and heat
  • Describe and explain the transfer and transformation of energy as it flows through an ecosystem.
Not all solar radiation ends up being stored as biomass. Losses include_
  • reflection from leaves
  • light not hitting chloroplasts
  • light of the wrong wavelengths (not absorbed by chloroplast pigments)
  • transmission of light through the leaf
  • inefficiency of photosynthesis
In this diagram we can see the energy flow through an ecosystem.
  • Describe and explain transfer and transformation of materials such as they cycle within an ecosystem.
The Carbon Cycle:
The Hydrological cycle:

The nitrogen cycle:
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  • Define the terms gross productivity, net productivity, primary productivity, and secondary productivity.
*Productivity is production per unit time.
Primary productivity is the gain by producers (autotrophs) in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time. It is when solar energy is converted, it depends on the amount of sunlight the ability of the producers to use energy to synthesize organic compounds and the availability of other things needed for growth, like minerals and nutrients.
Primary production is highest were conditions for growth are optimal, where there are high levels of insolation, good water supply, warm temperatures and high nutrient levels.
You can then divide primary productivity into gross and net profits.
*GROSS is the income
*NET is the incomes minus costs
Secondary productivity depends on the amount of food there is and the efficiency of the consumers turning this into new biomass. Unlike the primary productivity net productivity involves feeding or absorption.
Gross productivity (GP): The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time.
Net productivity (NP): The gain of energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory losses. It is the energy left for the next trophic level to consume.
  • Define the terms and calculate the values of both gross primary productivity and net primary productivity from given data.
Gross primary productivity (GPP): is gained through photosynthesis in primary producers.
Net primary productivity (NPP): is the gain by prodicers in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory losses. (Available for consumers in ecosystem)
Productivity calculation:
Primary productivity:

where R = energy used in respiration
NPP = GPP – R
  • Define the terms and calculate the values of both gross secondary productivity and net secondary productivity from given data.
Gross secondary productivity(GSP): is gained through absorption in consumers.
Net secondary productivity(NSP): The gain by consumers in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory losses.
Secondary productivity:
NSP = GSP – R
GSP = food eaten – faecal loss
where R = respiratory loss
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  • Distinguish between biotic and abiotic (physical) components of an ecosystem.

*Biotic: refers to the living components of an ecosystem. (the community)

*Abiotic: refers to the non-living factors of an ecosystem. (the environment)

Ecosystems are made up of living and non-living components. The living part of the environment consists of the organic part of the ecosystem; animals, plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. These are called biotic components. The non-living part of the environment is made up of physical components such as; air, light, water, temperature, soil, minerals and climatic atmosphere. These are called abiotic components. These two components work together to sustain the environment.

  • Define the term trophic level.

Trophic level refers to the feeding level within a food chain. It is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain, or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains.

  • Trophic level 1 – producer
  • Trophic level 2 – herbivore (primary consumers)
  • Trophic level 3 – carnivore (secondary consumers)
  • Trophic level 4 – carnivore (tertiary consumer)
    • Identify and explain trophic levels in food chains and food webs selected from the local environment.

    *Producer: The organism in the ecosystem that converts abiotic components into living matter, they help the ecosystem by producing new biological matter.

    *Consumer: These organisms cannot produce their own food, so they eat other organisms to get the energy and matter they need.

    * Decomposer: Feed on dead biomass which is created by the ecosystem.

    *Herbivore: Only feed on producers.

    *Carnivore: Feed on all organisms including producers and consumers.

    *Top carnivore: This organism can not be eaten by any other organism.

    Sun: Provides the abiotic matter to the grass

    Grass: Producer and autotroph, provide food for the deer.

    Deer: The primary consumer and herbivore of the grass.

    Wolf: The secondary consumer/Top consumer and carnivore, feeds on the deer and cannot be eaten by any other organism.

    Ecosystems contain many interconnected food chains that form food webs. Food chains always begin with the producers (usually photosynthetic organisms), followed by primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (omnivores or carnivores) and then higher consumers (tertiary, top). Decomposers feed at every level of the food chain.

    Diagrams of food webs can be used to estimate the knock-on effects of changes to the ecosystem.

    Biomass and energy decrease at each trophic level so there is a limit in how much trophic levels can be supported in a ecosystem. Energy is lost as heat at each stage of the food chain, on only energy stored in biomass is passed on to the next trophic level. After 4 or 5 trophic levels there is not enough energy to support another stage.

    Local example: (Lake in Sweden)

    Producer: Freshwater shrimp

    Primary consumer: Bleak

    Secondary consumer: Perch

    Secondary consumer: Northen Pike

    Top consumer: Osprey

    • Explain the principles of pyramids of numbers, pyramids of biomass, and pyramids of productivity, and construct such pyramids from given data.

    Pyramids are graphical models showing the quantitative differences between the trophic levels of an ecosystem. There are three types:

    • Pyramids of numbers: This records the number of individuals in each trophic level.

    • Pyramid of biomass: This represents the biological mass of the standing stock at each trophic level at a particular point in time. Biomass should also be measured in units of energy, such as J m-2. They can show greater quantities at higher trophic levels because they represent the biomass present at a given time. Both pyramids of numbers and biomass represent storages.

    • Pyramid of productivity: This shows the flow of energy through each trophic level. Measured in units of flow gm-2 yr-1 or Jm-2 yr.

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, there is a tendency for numbers and quantities of biomass and energy to decrease along food chains; therefore pyramids become narrower as one ascends.

    • Discuss how the pyramid structure affects the functioning of an ecosystem.

    This Youtube clip explains the interactions in food chains and the vulnerability of the top carnivores.

    • Define the term species, population, habitat, niche, community and ecosystem with reference to local examples.

    *Species: A group of of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring. If two species breed together they create a hybrid, this cannot produce viable gametes and is sterile.

    *Population: A group of the same species living in the same area at the same time, and can interbreed.

    *Habitat: The environment in which a species normally lives.

    *Niche: Where and how a species lives. A species share of a habitat and the resources in it.

    *Community: A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat.

    *Ecosystem: A community of inter-independent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit.

    • Describe and explain population interactions using examples of named species.

    Ecosystems contain many interactions between the populations, the interactions are varied and can be divided into; competition, predation, mutualism and parasitism.

    *Competition: A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites. It may be intraspecific or interspecific.

    *Parasitism: A relationship between two species in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another (the host), gaining all or much (in the case of the partial parasite) of its food from it.

    *Mutualism: A relationship between individuals of two or more species in which all benefit and non suffer.

    *Predation: This is when on animal or plant hunts and eats another animal.


    Here are 3 Youtube links about Interspecific interactions.