Posts Tagged ‘SY’

  • Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.

Ecologically minded economists describe resources as ”natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce ”natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services.

This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.

*Natural capital + natural income: raw materials from the environment (natural capital), are harvested and used by producers to generate products and services (natural income) that are then used by consumers.

  • Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non-renewable natural capital.

*Renewable resource: is a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used, and whose emissions and wastes are recycled in a sustainable way. They can be used over and over again. Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, are self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy ad photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.

*Replenishable resource: non-living resources which are continuously restored by natural processes, (ex. rivers, ozone layer) as as they are used up. They provide sustainable natural income as the natural capital is not diminished. They depend on abiotic processes for their replenishment. (in contrast to renewable resources which depend on biotic processes)

*Non-renewable resource: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that of which they are take from the environment (cannot be replenished at the same they are used). Any use of these resources results in depletion of the stock. These include: fossil fuels, and minerals.

Renewable: solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, hydro-power energy and geothermal energy.

Non-renewable: fossil fuel oils, coal, nuclear and natural gas.

  • Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.

Cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the recently become a valuable resource. What this all means is that resources are dynamic, its status may change, it might become valuable.

  • Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital  and natural income.

* Sustainability: means living, within the means of nature, on the ”interest” or sustainable income generated by nature capital. So using the global resources at the rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment.

This can be encouraged by:

– ecological land-use to maintain habitat quality and connectivity for all species.

– sustainable material cycles, (ex carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles).

– social systems that contribute to a culture of  sufficiency that eases the consumption pressures on natural capital.

  • Discuss the concept of sustainable development.

* Sustainable development: development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Focuses on the quality if environmental, economic, and social and cultural development. The concept encompasses ideas and values that inspire individuals and organizations to become better stewards of the environment and promote positive economic growth and social objectives.

  • Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.

sustainable yield may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example; the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through the growth and recruitment.

”development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability if the future generations to meet their own needs.”

SY= (annual growth and recruitment) – ( annual death and emigration)